When confronting a mountain of raw data, how do you know what to look for, or how to connect the dots?

Data, often in massive amounts from multiple sources, must be collected, cleaned, organized and evaluated. Was the research designed properly? Were scientific methods properly applied? Are the findings based on correct assumptions? Are there inaccuracies, missing values, or gaps in the logic? Analysis & Inference brings to every assignment a depth of insight acquired from hundreds of diverse projects to precisely apply the following statistical methods.

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Data Analysis and Modeling

Data analysis can discover hidden patterns and suggest hypotheses to test. Statistical models fitted to data can assist in estimating, decision making and predicting outcomes. Examples include determining the dollar amounts of fraud and theft, and forecasting product lifetimes and failures.

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Forecasting and Time Series

Time series methods in statistics exploit relationships and patterns in data collected over time – such as sales volumes or measures of product quality – and provide a sound basis for predicting future values.

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In many cases, graphics are the most effective way to present and explain data, theories and conclusions. Sometimes, a single clear graphic has helped settle disputes. Analysis & Inference also employs graphics to explore relationships and hypotheses in data.

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Machine / Statistical Learning

Machine learning is a collection of methods to classify observations or predict new ones. Typically these methods work in an automatic way to “learn” from patterns in data. They succeed by exploiting modern computing power to test and combine numerous possible models.

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Quality Control

Quality control includes special statistical techniques that have been highly successful in assuring the quality of products and services throughout industry. This approach can be effective in other circumstances where important data are collected on an ongoing basis . Examples include selecting sampling and analytical techniques for environmental site investigations and evaluating the accuracy and completeness of databases.

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Regression Analysis

Regression analysis includes many techniques for modeling and analyzing multiple factors to predict outcomes such as sales, accidents, market prices or salary. It’s also used to infer causal relationships among variables. Because accurate analysis requires the proper data generating process, which often is unknown, the process often involves making assumptions – which is where the skill and experience of A+I can make a critical difference.

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Research Design

Which data and statistical methods will produce the needed answers in the most efficient way? Research design—broadly conceived—answers those questions. If our search reveals undiscovered facts, issues, or opportunities, A+I alerts our clients to the new doors we can open and estimates the time and cost involved, giving clients a basis to decide if they wish to explore further.

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Risk Analysis and Probability

Risk analysis studies decision-making when costs and benefits of different actions are uncertain. Risk analysis has been applied at A+I to assess environmental risks from contaminated sites, compute the likelihood of catastrophic accidents, and evaluate product reliability.

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Sampling transactions, products, persons and processes can produce enormous savings compared to exhaustive analysis. Statistical sampling tells you how many samples you need, how best to collect them, and how accurate the results are likely to be.

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Simulation is used to model complex systems, investigate how well alternative statistical methods work in given situations, and find out what can happen when theoretical assumptions do not hold.

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Statistical Validity and Significance

Statistical validity—the ability of a result to hold up when challenged—is a goal of any analysis. Statistical significance is an objective when estimates or decisions must meet accuracy and precision thresholds. Analyses supported by statistically valid and significant results conserve precious time and money, and help ensure correct decisions and effective action.

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